B11

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B11 neuron is a type of buccal neuron that is found in Tritonia

The B11 neurons are large multiple transmitter neurons that are found in the buccal ganglion. They are medially located white colored neurons. The nervous system of the Tritonia contains several different buccal neurons, all with different functions.

Neuronal Type: Motor Neuron

Neurotransmitters

B11 contains two neuropeptides and large amounts of acetylcholine. Both of the peptides that are found in the B11 neuron are a class of small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). One of the peptides is a small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB).

B11 neuron can be differentiated from B12 neurons. While both B11 and B12 neurons have two types of SCP peptides, the B11 neurons are the only ones that contain acetylcholine. Like the B11 neurons, B12 neurons also stimulate contractions in the foregut, but they are in the opposite direction from the contractions that are elicited by B11. Electrical stimulation of B12 inhibits the output of the CPG.

Physiology/Behavior

B11 neurons stimulate foregut contractility as well as modulate the output of the swallowing Central Pattern Generator by releasing the SCPB peptide from the central terminals. Stimulation of the B11 neuron also excites the B5 neurons and stimulates the motor output of the feeding CPG. The continuous flow, or superfusion, of SCPB in the gut enhances peristalsis, and superfusion of the buccal ganglion with SCPB improves the motor output from the CPG. The SCP peptide has two main effects on the bursting output of motor neurons. It increases the rate of bursting, and it increases the spike frequency during each burst. Acetylcholine not only inhibits peristalsis, but when there is continuous flow in the buccal gangion, it also inhibits CPG output.

The neuron regulates the motility of the gut and when it is stimulated it produces a posteriorly-directed peristalsis after latency. This is usually accompanied with swallowing. When the B11 is stimulated, it also produces an increase in endogenous contractile activity rate. The B11 neurons elicit cyclic motor output of the feeding CPG and drive contractions of the gut.

References

  1. Altrup, U., and E. J. Spekkman. "Identified neuronal individuals in the buccal ganglia ofHelix pomatia." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology 24.2 (1994): 23-32.
  2. Dowling, John E. Neurons and networks: an introduction to behavioral neuroscience.
  3. Jordan, R., K. P. Cohen, and M. D. Kirk. "Control of intrinsic buccal muscles by motoneurons B11, B15, and B16 in Aplysia californica." The Journal of Experimental Zoology 265.5 (1993): 496-506.
  4. Lloyd, P. E., and A. O. Willows. "Multiple transmitter neurons in Tritonia. II. Control of gut motility." Journal of Neurobiology 19.1 (1988): 55-67.
  5. Lloyd, P. E., B. P. Masinovsky, and A. O. Willows. "Multiple transmitter neurons in Tritonia. I. Biochemical studies." Journal of Neurobiology 19.1 (1988): 39-54.
  6. Willows, A. O., P. E. Lloyd, and B. P. Masinovsky. "Multiple transmitter neurons in Tritonia. III. Modulation of central pattern generator controlling feeding." Journal of Neurobiology 19.1 (1988): 69-86.
  7. Willows, A. O. "Physiological basis of feeding behavior in Tritonia diomedea. II. Neuronal mechanisms." Journal of Neurobiology 44.5: 849-61